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New Selections for Cultivating Mango

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Interested in growing mangoes having red, yellow, green or bright yellow skin on house yard? Or even interested to cultivate it? Well, don't worry even if you live in a town where it often rains and thus unrecommended place to grow mango. Try planting Irwin, nam dok mai, or chokanan. Those Australian and Thailand mangoes can be expected to bear fruit rapidly despite of grown in the lowlands with rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year.

 

When September comes, yellow oblong lobed shaped mangoes inundate the crown of 3 m tall trees rowing in an orchard in Delitua, Medan, North Sumatera. Those mangoes are ready to harvest. Last year, those trees were harvested for the third time.

The productivity of each tree that is grown in a 100 l drum with spacing of 6 m x 5 m between one tree and the other is averagely 70 kg per season. There are actually 2.000 nam dok mai and 500 chokanan - the yellow skin mango - grown in the orchard covering 6 ha in width. So, it means that at least 175 tonnes mangoes are reaped from the orchard per harvest season which falls in September - October. Fascinatingly, the total harvest are absorbed by fruit shop and supermarket in around Medan only.

Yonder in Sukasari Village, Serang Baru Sub district, Bekasi Regency - 2 hours away from Jakarta, Timotius Endro Djoenaidi also grows 800 chokanan, and 500 nam dok mai, along with 1.000 okyong, 250 ciwangwang, and 100 irwin on a land measuring 2 ha. The man who used to run a public transport business grows them in dense population.

Throughout September 2008 - May 2009, he reaped 2 tonnes mangoes from his orchard. A total of 400 - 750 kg were delivered to a famous tourist place in the area of Cileungsi, Bogor, West Java. The rest crop were delivered to private customers in Lippo Cikarang elite housing, Bekasi. This year, Djoenaidi extends his orchard into 4 ha. ‘Every harvest, the mangoes are sold out and the customers' demand  always recurs,’ said the man who is a church activist when he was asked why he expands his orchard.

Adaptive under the rain

Within the Indonesian map of mango cultivation, Medan and Bekasi are actually not included as the centers. The cultivation of mango which is a member of family Anacardiaceae is concentrated on dry areas that receive full sunlight, namely Situbondo, Pasuruan, and other cities in Java north shore lane. Arumanis is the most cultivated mango variety. Yos Sutiyoso, a fruit expert in Jakarta, stated that mangoes generally grow optimal in hot cloudless area with 10 - 12 hour daylight. Beyond that, mango fruit will be less optimal and the productivity will be low.

Arnold Simatupang, a cultivar supervisor of Technical Implementation Unit (Unit Pelaksana Teknis, UPT) Seed Control and Certification Center IV (Balai Pengawasan dan Sertifikasi Benih IV), the North Sumatera Province Agricultural Service (Dinas Pertanian Provinsi Sumatera Utara), told us that few years ago mango varieties such as arumanis and gedonggincu were grown on the villagers' house yard in the area of Medan. Unfortunately, they both failed to developed. The skin color of gedonggincu is less red than the one grown in Java. While arumanis is, ‘susceptible against pod borer attack,’ Arnold said.

Pod borer Cryptorrhynchus sp mainly attacks in the area with high rainfall and humidity. Medan where it never experiences long drought season - often even rains during dry season - is a comfortable habitat for pod borer. ‘Therefore, selecting more resistant varieties against pod borer is required prior to grow mango in area with high rainfall,’ said Ir Baswarsiati MS of East Java Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian, BPTP, Jawa Timur). Apparently, nam dok mai and chokanan - both are originated from Thailand, henceforth called as introduction mango(es) - meets the requirement for they are relatively resistant against pod borer attack, and can grow well in humid and lots of environment.

Durable in Shipment

According to Sobir PhD, the head of Centre for Tropical Fruit Studies (Pusat Kajian Buah-buahan Tropika, PKBT) of Bogor Agricultural University (Institut Pertanian Bogor, IPB), introduction mangoes from overseas are usually monoembryonic. In other words, each mango seed will develop into 1 sprout only. Based on Sobir's observation, some  monoembryonic thrive and produce well in wet climate areas such as in Sumatera and West Java.

The doctor graduated from Okayama University, Japan, assumed that the adaptive nature possessed by introduction mangoes is on account of their predecessors originated from India of which climate is relatively more humid. Examples of the most adaptive varieties are chokanan, irwin, and nam dok mai. Thus it means that there is open opportunity to cultivate those varieties outside traditional centers. It is the idea that has been implemented by the owner of an orchard in  Delitua, Djoenaidi, Sofyan Linggajaya (Pandeglang, Banten), Narin Wattana Anurak (Karawang), dan Sahril Sidik (Majalengka).

Sofyan and Narin prefers chokanan, while Sahril chooses irwin, but it is not merely based on their adaptability. Those introduction mangoes each has its own superiority. Chokanan is an early-ripening variety, productive, and can withstand rain drops. Irwin has a pretty appearance: at maturity the skin is red, yellow and green; in addition to arrangeable harvest time, resistant against fruit fly and long distance transport for having thicker skin. Moreover, it is good to be juiced on account of its refreshing flavor. (see illustration)

What about the market? Huge. The reason is, ‘introduction mangoes have something different from the local ones,’ explained Dr Ir Arief Daryanto, the director of Post-Graduate Program of Management and Business, IPB. In regards of taste, as an example, Indonesian tongues are accustomed to the sweetness of arumanis. Contrariwise, chokanan and irwin offers a sweet and fresh taste.

2 kg Mango

The opportunity to cultivate introduction mangoes can be seen from Indonesia import mango value for the last 6 years. The data from Central Bureau of Statistics (Badan Pusat Statistik, BPS) shows that in 2003 the import volume was only 350 tonnes per year, but in 2007 the import volume rose to 1.000 tonnes or 3 fold-increase. The varieties mostly imported were khio sawoei of Thailand and irwin (Australia). The import volume of the later reaches 50% of the total import. The reason is it is an early-reap type. In other words, it is sweet already though still unripe.

In fruit supermarket, those introduction mangoes are valued at high price. Still, there are people who buy them. ‘Customers' buying impulse towards introduction mangoes are quite significant,’ said Zoilus Sitepu, national specialist for fruit and vegetable Hypermarket. It is usually because introduction mangoes look interesting and distinct so that consumers are attracted to buy though at the first place they don't have the intention.

Take yu wen as an example. This introduction mango of Taiwan has a bright yellow to dark red skin. In Hypermarket it is labeled Rp5.500 per 100 g. So for a 2 kg yu wen, anyone who buys it must spend Rp110.000, but s/he who buys based on curiosity won't be disappointed. Yu wen has bright orange skin, sweet taste, soft texture, and extremely thin seed. According to JS Lin, a colleague of Trubus in Taiwan, yu wen is among the mostly grown varieties in the Formosa Island.

Don't get mistaken!

The 'A' quality irwin from Sahril Sidik's orchard go to Superindo supermarket. The shipment volume is 100 kg every 2 days during harvest season in October - January. The irwin is  valued at Rp12.000 per kg from the orchard. Recently, Sahril who graduated from Cirebon Maritime Academy (Akademi Maritim Cirebon) receives an order inquiry for 100 tonnes irwin per day to supply 2.000 outlets of a notable mini market. Accordingly, Sahril is planning to expand his orchard to 400 ha.

Likewise, the production from Djoenaidi, Sofyan, and Narin's orchards are sold out instantly purchased by direct customers ‘There is also order from fruit shop, but I am not able to fulfill it,’ Djoenaidi said. Besides the open opportunity, however, future growers must also take account for the risk. JK Soetanto was forced to uproot 2.000 4-year-old mango trees grown on his orchard in Subang, West Java. ‘After waiting for 4 years, I finally realized that khioe sawoei seedlings that I bought were happened to be okyong,’ said the owner of Bogatani orchard - that produce of melon, papaya, and other tropical fruit. Okyong is actually a productive variety but the flesh is flabby and least favorable for the market.

Sofyan, on the other hand, cut away half content of his orchard due to dense spacing (3,5 m x 3,5 m) that cause the surrounding environment humid. Such condition creates a comfortable ‘nest’ for fungus which causing disease. So whenever the trees population becomes too dense, it  should be pruned frequently.

Once the obstacles have been overcome, a huge opportunity is just a few steps away. Harvest season for local mangoes takes place in September - November. On the average, import mangoes come in May - September. In contrast, the harvest season for introduction mangoes can be arranged to take place between September - May when the availability of local and import mangoes are vacant in the market. Based from the fact, Andy Kim plans to open an area of 3000 m2 garden in Karawang for chokanan and okyong. Sofyan has just opened a new orchard covering 2 ha in Bekasi. Indeed, a more adaptive nature of introduction mangoes in rain climate expands more opportunity. (Nesia Artdiyasa/Reporter(s): Destika Cahyana, Faiz Yajri, and Imam Wiguna)

 

Photos:

  1. Yu wen, a jumbo sized mango originated from Taiwan that nearly weighs 2 kg is averagely valued at Rp100.000 per fruit at Hypermart
  2. Yu-wen has a thick flesh but thin seed
  3. Irwin, interesting appearance with sweetness level at 20o briks
  4. Okyong, juicy flesh and sweet and fresh flavor
  5. Chokanan is mostly favorable by growers due to high productivity 120 kg/tree/year.
  6. Eleven thousand irwin are cultivated by Sahril Sidik in Jatitujuh, Majalengka, West Jawa.

 

Top Immigrants for Your Orchards

Chokanan

Origin

Thailand

Fruit Character

weight range at 300 - 350 g, dry and mealy pulp, fragrant, sweet and sticky (16o brix), yellow skin.

Planting location

Bekasi, Banten, Demak, Situbondo, Medan.

Cultivation character

Early ripening (fruiting in 2 - 3 years), flowers can withstand rain drops, high productivity 150 kg/year/10 year-old tree*

Harvest Season

September - January in Bekasi, September - October in Medan,    nearly all year round in Karawang.

Nam dok mai

Origin

Thailand

Fruit Character

weight range at 450 - 500 g, mild texture of flesh, soft fragrant, very sweet (20o briks), yellow cover more than half the fruit except the beak  part which is green. *

Planting location

Bekasi, Banten, Demak, Situbondo, Medan

Cultivation character

early ripening (fruiting at age 2 - 3 years), flowers can withstand rain drops, high productivity 120 kg/year/10 year old tree *

Harvest Season

September - January in Bekasi, September - October in Medan

Mundeunkao

Origin

Thailand

Fruit Character

weight range at 300 - 500 g, good to be eaten unripe, crisp, sweet, the scent resembles arumanis, dry flesh, green and powdery skin. *

Planting location

Karawang

Cultivation character

early ripening (fruiting at age 2 - 3 years), productivity 120 kg/year/6 year old tree

Harvest Season

September - October in Karawang

Khio jay

Origin

Thailand

Fruit Character

weight range at 300 - 500 g, good to be eaten unripe, crisp, sweet, savory, green and powdery skin.

Planting location

Karawang

Cultivation character

early ripening (fruiting at age 2 - 3 years), productivity 120  kg/year/6 year old tree

Harvest Season

September - October in Karawang

Mahachanok

Origin

Thailand

Fruit Character

weight range at 350 - 500 g, sweet somewhat sour (16 - 18o brix), red yellowish orange skin called as rainbow mango. *

Planting location

-

Cultivation character

early ripening (fruiting at age 2 - 3 years), adaptive on the altitude 100 - 700 m asl in Central and North Thailand.

Harvest Season

April - July in Thailand

Irwin

Origin

Australia

Fruit Character

weight range at 300 - 500 g, fine fibers, dry flesh, somewhat starchy, sweet and fresh (20o brix), red purplish with a little blush of orange and green thick skin, suitable for juice.*

Planting location

Majalengka, Karawang, Bekasi, and Situbondo.

Cultivation character

fruiting at age 3 years, productivity 35 kg/year/5 year old tree, thick skin, thus resistant against fruit fly and can withstand during shipment

Harvest Season

October - January in Majalengka

Yu wen

Origin

Taiwan

Fruit Character

Jumbo in size weighing 1 - 2 kg, thick, soft, free of fiber, sweet fresh flesh (15o brix), thin seed, and flaring red skin. *

Harvest Season

July - August in Taiwan

Pakistan

Origin

Pakistan

Fruit Character

Jumbo in size weighing 1 - 1,5 kg, unique rhomb shape,  dry, crisp and sweet flesh, dark green skin. *

Planting location

Karawang

Cultivation character

Fruit will not be maximal if grown in container

Harvest Season

September - October in Karawang

Khio sawoei

Origin

Thailand

Fruit Character

weight range at 300-500 g, good to eat while still unripe, dry, crisp, starchy and sweet flesh despite unripe, and dark green skin. *

Planting location

Karawang

Cultivation character

Early ripening (fruiting at age 2 - 3 years), productivity 8 kg/year/tree in container, farmers in Thailand may reach productivity 120kg/year/tree.

Harvest Season

September - October in Karawang

Okyong

Origin

Thailand

Fruit Character

weight range at 300 - 350 g, juicy and not too starchy flesh, sweet, and yellow skin evenly.*

Planting location

Bekasi, Banten, Karawang.

Cultivation character

Early ripening (fruiting at age 2 - 3 years), productivity 50 kg/year/5 year-old tree

Harvest Season

November - February in Bekasi

Fa lan

Origin

Thailand

Fruit Character

weight range at 300-500 g, good to eat while still unripe, dry, crisp, mealy flesh, sweet despite unripe, and dark green skin. *

Planting location

Karawang.

Cultivation character

Early ripening (fruiting at age 3 years), productivity 10 kg/year/6 year-old in container.

Harvest Season

September - October in Karawang.

Pedro

Origin

Mexico

Fruit character

Jumbo in size, averagely 1 kg, sweet and somewhat sour, flour-less, purplish-red and powdery skin.*

Planting location

Sidoarjo

Cultivation character

Fruiting at 5 years old, productivity 75 kg/year/tree at age 7 years

Harvest Season

November - December in Sidoarjo, East Java.

Harvest season

All year round in Sidoarjo, East Java*

Napati Malda

Origin

India

Fruit character

Weight range at 300 - 350 g, sweet, not too powdery, reddish orange skin*

Planting location

Sidoarjo

Cultivation character

Fruiting at age of 5 years old, productivity 30 kg/tree/year

Harvesting season

November - December in Sidoarjo, West Java

*Superiority